Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica

Laboratorio Detección de Partículas y Radiación

LabDPR Journal

An arXiv selection

LabDPR Journal is kind of an epijournal as defined by Episciences.org. The idea is that arXiv articles that we find interesting are just linked from here. It is in some way a repository of what we found interesting in arXiv for our lab.

Editions:

06/2016

1606.07001 - DARWIN: towards the ultimate dark matter detector

Aalbers, J. et al.

Abstract: DARk matter WImp search with liquid xenoN (DARWIN) will be an experiment for the direct detection of dark matter using a multi-ton liquid xenon time projection chamber at its core. Its primary goal will be to explore the experimentally accessible parameter space for Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in a wide mass-range, until neutrino interactions with the target become an irreducible background. The prompt scintillation light and the charge signals induced by particle interactions in the xenon will be observed by VUV sensitive, ultra-low background photosensors. Besides its excellent sensitivity to WIMPs above a mass of 5 GeV/c2, such a detector with its large mass, low-energy threshold and ultra-low background level will also be sensitive to other rare interactions. It will search for solar axions, galactic axion-like particles and the neutrinoless double-beta decay of 136-Xe, as well as measure the low-energy solar neutrino flux with <1% precision, observe coherent neutrino-nucleus interactions, and detect galactic supernovae. We present the concept of the DARWIN detector and discuss its physics reach, the main sources of backgrounds and the ongoing detector design and R&D efforts.

1606.04980 - Detecting continuous gravitational waves with superfluid $^4$He

Singh, S.; De Lorenzo, L. A.; Pikovski, I.; Schwab, K. C.

Abstract: Direct detection of gravitational waves is opening a new window onto our universe. Here, we study the sensitivity to continuous-wave strain fields of a kg-scale optomechanical system formed by the acoustic motion of superfluid helium-4 parametrically coupled to a superconducting microwave cavity. This narrowband detection scheme can operate at very high $Q$-factors, while the resonant frequency is tunable through pressurization of the helium in the 0.1-1.5 kHz range. The detector can therefore be tuned to a variety of astrophysical sources and can remain sensitive to a particular source over a long period of time. For reasonable experimental parameters, we find that strain fields on the order of $h\sim 10^{-23} /\sqrt{\rm Hz}$ are detectable. We show that the proposed system can significantly improve the limits on gravitational wave strain from nearby pulsars within a few months of integration time.

05/2016

1605.03525 - Development Toward a Ground-Based Interferometric Phased Array for Radio Detection of High Energy Neutrinos

Avva, J. et al.

Abstract: A promising method for further measurements of high energy neutrinos at the PeV scale and above is through an in-ice radio interferometric phased array, designed to look for Askaryan emission from neutrinos interacting in large volumes of glacial ice. Such a detector would be sensitive to two populations of neutrinos: the PeV-scale astrophysical neutrino flux recently detected by IceCube, and the predicted cosmogenic ultra-high energy (UHE) flux ($E>10^{17}$ eV). Characterizing these high energy neutrino populations is an important step toward understanding the most energetic cosmic accelerators, and the discovery of UHE neutrinos would allow us to probe fundamental physics at energy scales that are not achievable on Earth. We report here on studies validating the phased array technique, including measurements and a simulation of thermal noise correlations between nearby antennas, beamforming for impulsive signals, and a measurement of the expected improvement in trigger efficiency through the phased array technique. We also discuss the deployment of a system for characterization of the noise environment at Summit Station, a possible site for an interferometric phased array for radio detection of high energy neutrinos.

1605.02204 - Detection of Supernova Neutrinos

Gil-Botella, Inés

Abstract: The neutrino burst from a core-collapse supernova can provide information about the star explosion mechanism and the mechanisms of proto neutron star cooling but also about the intrinsic properties of the neutrino such as flavor oscillations. One important question is to understand to which extent can the supernova and the neutrino physics be decoupled in the observation of a single supernova. The capabilities of present and future large underground neutrino detectors to yield information about the time and flavor dependent neutrino signal from a future galactic supernova are described in this paper. Neutrinos from past cosmic supernovae are also observable and their detection will improve our knowledge of the core-collapse rates and average neutrino emission. A comparison between the different experimental techniques is included.

04/2016

1604.05587 - Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

Amare, J. et al.

Abstract: A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5-kg NaI(Tl) detectors produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from 210Pb, 40K, 22Na and 3H are the most relevant. Those from 40K and 22Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a Liquid Scintillator Veto (LSV), while that from 210Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and 3H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/keV/kg/d in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/keV/kg/d by using a LSV.

1604.05088 - Temporal signatures of the Cherenkov light induced by extensive air showers of cosmic rays detected with the Yakutsk array

Ivanov, A. A.; Timofeev, L. V.

Abstract: We analyze temporal characteristics of signals from the wide field-of-view (WFOV) Cherenkov telescope (CT) detecting extensive air showers (EAS) of cosmic rays (CR) in coincidence with surface detectors of the Yakutsk array. Our aim is to reveal causal relationships between measured characteristics and physical properties of EAS.

1604.04199 - NEWS: Nuclear Emulsions for WIMP Search

Aleksandrov, A. et al.

Abstract: Nowadays there is compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter in the Universe. A general consensus has been expressed on the need for a directional sensitive detector to confirm, with a complementary approach, the candidates found in conventional searches and to finally extend their sensitivity beyond the limit of neutrino-induced background. We propose here the use of a detector based on nuclear emulsions to measure the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils. The production of nuclear emulsion films with nanometric grains is established. Several measurement campaigns have demonstrated the capability of detecting sub-micrometric tracks left by low energy ions in such emulsion films. Innovative analysis technologies with fully automated optical microscopes have made it possible to achieve the track reconstruction for path lengths down to one hundred nanometers and there are good prospects to further exceed this limit. The detector concept we propose foresees the use of a bulk of nuclear emulsion films surrounded by a shield from environmental radioactivity, to be placed on an equatorial telescope in order to cancel out the effect of the Earth rotation, thus keeping the detector at a fixed orientation toward the expected direction of galactic WIMPs. We report the schedule and cost estimate for a one-kilogram mass pilot experiment, aiming at delivering the first results on the time scale of six years.

1604.03314 - New application of superconductors: high sensitivity cryogenic light detectors

Cardani, L. et al.

Abstract: In this paper we describe the current status of the CALDER project, which is developing ultra-sensitive light detectors based on superconductors for cryogenic applications. When we apply an AC current to a superconductor, the Cooper pairs oscillate and acquire kinetic inductance, that can be measured by inserting the superconductor in a LC circuit with high merit factor. Interactions in the superconductor can break the Cooper pairs, causing sizable variations in the kinetic inductance and, thus, in the response of the LC circuit. The continuous monitoring of the amplitude and frequency modulation allows to reconstruct the incident energy with excellent sensitivity. This concept is at the basis of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs), that are characterized by natural aptitude to multiplexed read-out (several sensors can be tuned to different resonant frequencies and coupled to the same line), resolution of few eV, stable behavior over a wide temperature range, and ease in fabrication. We present the results obtained by the CALDER collaboration with 2x2 cm2 substrates sampled by 1 or 4 Aluminum KIDs. We show that the performances of the first prototypes are already competitive with those of other commonly used light detectors, and we discuss the strategies for a further improvement.

03/2016

1603.07669 - First demonstration of VUV-photon detection in liquid xenon with THGEM and GEM-based Liquid Hole Multipliers

Erdal, E. et al.

Abstract: The bubble-assisted Liquid Hole-Multiplier (LHM) is a recently-introduced detection concept for noble-liquid time projection chambers. In this "local dual-phase" detection element, a gas bubble is supported underneath a perforated electrode (e.g., Thick Gas Electron Multiplier - THGEM, or Gas Electron Multiplier - GEM). Electrons drifting through the holes induce large electroluminescence signals as they pass into the bubble. In this work we report on recent results of THGEM and GEM electrodes coated with cesium iodide and immersed in liquid xenon, allowing - for the first time - the detection of primary VUV scintillation photons in addition to ionization electrons using LHMs.

1603.03386 - On Bayesian analysis of on-off measurements

Nosek, Dalibor; Nosková, Jana

Abstract: We propose an analytical solution to the on-off problem within the framework of Bayesian statistics. Both the statistical significance for the discovery of new phenomena and credible intervals on model parameters are presented in a consistent way. We use a large enough family of prior distributions of relevant parameters. The proposed analysis is designed to provide Bayesian solutions that can be used for any number of observed on-off events, including zero. The procedure is checked using Monte Carlo simulations. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated on examples from gamma-ray astronomy.

02/2016

1602.05939 - First Search for a Dark Matter Annual Modulation Signal with NaI(Tl) in the Southern Hemisphere by DM-Ice17

Collaboration, DM-Ice et al.

Abstract: The first search for a dark matter annual modulation signal with NaI(Tl) target material in the Southern Hemisphere conducted with the DM-Ice17 experiment is presented. DM-Ice17 consists of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) scintillating crystal under 2200 m.w.e. overburden of Antarctic glacial ice. The analysis presented here utilizes a 60.8 kg yr exposure. While unable to exclude the signal reported by DAMA/LIBRA, the DM-Ice17 data are consistent with no modulation in the energy range of 4-20 keV, providing the strongest limits on WIMP candidates from a direct detection experiment located in the Southern Hemisphere. Additionally, the successful deployment and stable operation of 17 kg of NaI(Tl) crystal over 3.5 years establishes the South Pole ice as a viable location for future underground, low-background experiments.

1602.05021 - Technology for the next gravitational wave detectors

Mitrofanov, Valery P. et al.

Abstract: This paper reviews some of the key enabling technologies for advanced and future laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, which must combine test masses with the lowest possible optical and acoustic losses, with high stability lasers and various techniques for suppressing noise. Sect. 1 of this paper presents a review of the acoustic properties of test masses. Sect. 2 reviews the technology of the amorphous dielectric coatings which are currently universally used for the mirrors in advanced laser interferometers, but for which lower acoustic loss would be very advantageous. In sect. 3 a new generation of crystalline optical coatings that offer a substantial reduction in thermal noise is reviewed. The optical properties of test masses are reviewed in sect. 4, with special focus on the properties of silicon, an important candidate material for future detectors. Sect. 5 of this paper presents the very low noise, high stability laser technology that underpins all advanced and next generation laser interferometers.

1602.03216 - WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

Cavoto, G. et al.

Abstract: Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (~ 10 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the detection efficiency.

1602.01738 - MIMAC low energy electron-recoil discrimination measured with fast neutrons

Riffard, Q. et al.

Abstract: MIMAC (MIcro-TPC MAtrix of Chambers) is a directional WIMP Dark Matter detector project. Direct dark matter experiments need a high level of electron/recoil discrimination to search for nuclear recoils produced by WIMP-nucleus elastic scattering. In this paper, we proposed an original method for electron event rejection based on a multivariate analysis applied to experimental data acquired using monochromatic neutron fields. This analysis shows that a $10^{5}$ rejection power is reachable for electron/recoil discrimination. Moreover, the efficiency was estimated by a Monte-Carlo simulation showing that a $10^{5}$ electron rejection power is reached with a 85.1\% nuclear recoil efficiency using the same detector gain that on the detectors running at Modane.

1602.01605 - NIKA 2: next-generation continuum/polarized camera at the IRAM 30 m telescope and its prototype

Ritacco, A. et al.

Abstract: NIKA 2 (New Instrument of Kids Array) is a next generation continuum and polarized instrument successfully installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico-Veleta (Granada, Spain). NIKA 2 is a high resolution dual-band camera, operating with frequency multiplexed LEKIDs (Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors) cooled at 100 mK. Dual color images are obtained thanks to the simultaneous readout of a 1020 pixels array at 2 mm and 1140 x 2 pixels arrays at 1.15 mm with a final resolution of 18 and 12 arcsec respectively, and 6.5 arcmin of Field of View (FoV). The two arrays at 1.15 mm allow us to measure the linear polarization of the incoming light. This will place NIKA 2 as an instrument of choice to study the role of magnetic fields in the star formation process. The NIKA experiment, a prototype for NIKA 2 with a reduced number of detectors (about 400 LEKIDs) and FoV (1.8 arcmin), has been successfully operated at the IRAM 30 telescope in several open observational campaigns. The performance of the NIKA 2 polarization setup has been successfully validated with the NIKA prototype.

1602.00442 - Calibration scheme for large Kinetic Inductance Detector Arrays based on Readout Frequency Response

Bisigello, L. et al.

Abstract: Microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) provides a way to build large ground based sub-mm instruments such as NIKA and A-MKID. For such instruments, therefore, it is important to understand and characterize the response to ensure good linearity and calibration over wide dynamic range. We propose to use the MKID readout frequency response to determine the MKID responsivity to an input optical source power. A signal can be measured in a KID as a change in the phase of the readout signal with respect to the KID resonant circle. Fundamentally, this phase change is due to a shift in the KID resonance frequency, in turn due to a radiation induced change in the quasiparticle number in the superconducting resonator. We show that shift in resonant frequency can be determined from the phase shift by using KID phase versus frequency dependence using a previously measured resonant frequency. Working in this calculated resonant frequency, we gain near linearity and constant calibration to a constant optical signal applied in a wide range of operating points on the resonance and readout powers. This calibration method has three particular advantages: first, it is fast enough to be used to calibrate large arrays, with pixel counts in the thousand of pixels; second, it is based on data that are already necessary to determine KID positions; third, it can be done without applying any optical source in front of the array.

01/2016

1601.06567 - Constraining pion interactions at very high energies by cosmic ray data

Ostapchenko, Sergey; Bleicher, Marcus

Abstract: We demonstrate that a substantial part of the present uncertainties in model predictions for the average maximum depth of cosmic ray-induced extensive air showers is related to very high energy pion-air collisions. Our analysis shows that the position of the maximum of the muon production profile in air showers is strongly sensitive to the properties of such interactions. Therefore, the measurements of the maximal muon production depth by cosmic ray experiments provide a unique opportunity to constrain the treatment of pion-air interactions at very high energies and to reduce thereby model-related uncertainties for the shower maximum depth.

1601.05131 - Xenon Bubble Chambers for Direct Dark Matter Detection

Levy, C. et al.

Abstract: The search for dark matter is one of today's most exciting fields. As bigger detectors are being built to increase their sensitivity, background reduction is an ever more challenging issue. To this end, a new type of dark matter detector is proposed, a xenon bubble chamber, which would combine the strengths of liquid xenon TPCs, namely event by event energy resolution, with those of a bubble chamber, namely insensitivity to electronic recoils. In addition, it would be the first time ever that a dark matter detector is active on all three detection channels, ionization and scintillation characteristic of xenon detectors, and heat through bubble formation in superheated fluids. Preliminary simulations show that, depending on threshold, a discrimination of 99.99\% to 99.9999+\% can be achieved, which is on par or better than many current experiments. A prototype is being built at the University at Albany, SUNY. The prototype is currently undergoing seals, thermal, and compression testing.

1601.03969 - Microfabrication technology for large LEKID arrays : from NIKA2 to future applications

Goupy, J. et al.

Abstract: The Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKID)demonstrated full maturity in the NIKA (New IRAM KID Arrays)instrument. These results allow directly comparing LEKID performance with other competing technologies (TES, doped silicon) in the mm and sub-mm range. A continuing effort is ongoing to improve the microfabrication technologies and concepts in order to satisfy the requirements of new instruments. More precisely, future satellites dedicated to CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) studies will require the same focal plane technology to cover, at least, the frequency range of 60 to 600 GHz. Aluminium LEKID developed for NIKA have so far demonstrated, under real telescope conditions, performance approaching photon-noise limitation in the band 120-300 GHz. By implementing superconducting bi-layers we recently demonstrated LEKID arrays working in the range 80-120 GHz and with sensitivities approaching the goals for CMB missions. NIKA itself (350 pixels) is followed by a more ambitious project requiring several thousands (3000-5000) pixels. NIKA2 has been installed in October 2015 at the IRAM 30-m telescope. We will describe in detail the technological improvements that allowed a relatively harmless 10-fold up-scaling in pixels count without degrading the initial sensitivity. In particular we will briefly describe a solution to simplify the difficult fabrication step linked to the slot-line propagation mode in coplanar waveguide.

1601.02980 - The sensitivity of past and near-future lunar radio experiments to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and neutrinos

Bray, Justin

Abstract: Various experiments have been conducted to search for the radio emission from ultra-high-energy particles interacting in the lunar regolith. Although they have not yielded any detections, they have been successful in establishing upper limits on the flux of these particles. I present a review of these experiments in which I re-evaluate their sensitivity to radio pulses, accounting for effects which were neglected in the original reports, and compare them with prospective near-future experiments. In several cases, I find that past experiments were substantially less sensitive than previously believed. I apply existing analytic models to determine the resulting limits on the fluxes of ultra-high-energy neutrinos and cosmic rays. In the latter case, I amend the model to accurately reflect the fraction of the primary particle energy which manifests in the resulting particle cascade, resulting in a substantial improvement in the estimated sensitivity to cosmic rays. Although these models are in need of further refinement, in particular to incorporate the effects of small-scale lunar surface roughness, their application here indicates that a proposed experiment with the LOFAR telescope would test predictions of the neutrino flux from exotic-physics models, and an experiment with a phased-array feed on a large single-dish telescope such as the Parkes radio telescope would allow the first detection of cosmic rays with this technique, with an expected rate of one detection per 140 hours.

1601.02774 - The NIKA2 instrument, a dual-band kilopixel KID array for millimetric astronomy

Calvo, M. et al.

Abstract: NIKA2 (New IRAM KID Array 2) is a camera dedicated to millimeter wave astronomy based upon kilopixel arrays of Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID). The pathfinder instrument, NIKA, has already shown state-of-the-art detector performance. NIKA2 builds upon this experience but goes one step further, increasing the total pixel count by a factor $\sim$10 while maintaining the same per pixel performance. For the next decade, this camera will be the resident photometric instrument of the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30m telescope in Sierra Nevada (Spain). In this paper we give an overview of the main components of NIKA2, and describe the achieved detector performance. The camera has been permanently installed at the IRAM 30m telescope in October 2015. It will be made accessible to the scientific community at the end of 2016, after a one-year commissioning period. When this happens, NIKA2 will become a fundamental tool for astronomers worldwide.

1601.01184 - The ANAIS Dark Matter Project: Status and Prospects

Amaré, J. et al.

Abstract: The ANAIS (Annual modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA positive annual modulation signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC). A first step, named ANAIS-25 (two 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) modules) taking data from December 2012 to February 2015, provided interesting outcomes: very high light collection efficiency, that could allow to lower the analysis energy threshold down to the level of 1 keVee, and a good understanding of the different background components, in particular the cosmogenic activated isotopes in the crystal bulk and other radioactive contaminations of the NaI crystal/powder. But those prototypes clearly pointed to the need for improved crystal radiopurity, in particular for $^{210}$Pb contamination. Since then, improvements in the purification and growing procedures in order to reduce background in the very low energy region have been implemented and a new 12.5 kg module has been constructed and installed between the former two crystals, forming the ANAIS-37 setup. Very preliminary results of this setup evidence the improvement on radiopurity of the new crystal and are presented here. In addition, background simulations and prospects for the full experiment are discussed.

1601.01112 - On the extension of the sensitive area of an extensive air shower surface array

Kh, H. Hedayati

Abstract: A large distance between true and reconstructed core locations of an extensive air shower (EAS) may results in great systematic mis-estimation of EAS parameters. The reconstruction of those EASs whose core locations are outside the boundary of a surface array (outside EAS (OEAS)) results in a large distance of the reconstructed core location from the true one, especially when the true core is far outside the array. Although it may not be mentioned, the identification of OEASs is a necessary and important step in the reconstruction procedure of an EAS. In this paper, an existing technique is optimized for the identification of OEASs. The simultaneous use of this technique and a recently developed approach for reconstructing the core location of an EAS can significantly increase the sensitive area of a surface array.
Laboratorio Detección de Partículas y Radiación, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Av. Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche (8400), Río Negro, Argentina